Basic physical abilities, resistance, speed, strength - teenflixsports

Basic physical abilities Endurance, speed, strength, flexibility in physical education

The basic physical capacities are the set of components of a person's physical condition. It is to a greater or lesser degree the achievement of a motor skill. Basic physical abilities have two important factors. On the one hand, there is motor capacity, referring to the motor potential that nourishes motor skills. On the other hand, there is the physical quality, it is the more or optimal state in which all capacity is found at each age or evolutionary moment. These factors influence technical skills and physical qualities.

There are three mechanisms for motor execution. The perception mechanism is responsible for perception, reception of stimuli through vision, hearing, touch and balance. Next is the decision mechanism, in which the received stimuli are processed and the motor response is decided. And finally, the orders sent are materialized in the execution mechanism. Depending on the function of complementary motor skills, they are divided into coordination and balance. And, in the basic physical capacities that are strength, resistance, speed and flexibility. It is important to work on these capacities because they have a positive impact on our health. They allow a good functioning of the cardiorespiratory system. They prevent the appearance of conditions in the spine. In addition, they enable the processes of growth and development.


  • Conditional basic physical abilities
  • Coordinative physical capacities
  • Resulting physical capabilities
  • What is force?
  • Types of strength in basic physical capacities
  • What is resistance?
  • Types of resistance in basic physical capacities
  • What is speed?
  • Types of speed in basic physical capacities
  • What is flexibility?
  • Types of flexibility in basic physical abilities
  • Games and strength exercises
  • Games and resistance exercises
  • Games and speed exercises
  • Games and flexibility exercises

Conditional basic physical abilities

Basic physical abilities are divided into strength, endurance, speed, and flexibility . These capacities are normally developed during the primary education stage. It is done globally and through motor skills, since children are in full growth period.

Strength is the neuromuscular ability to overcome internal or external resistance, thanks to static or dynamic muscle contraction. For this reason, strength is fundamental, since it occurs in any type of physical activity. It can be said that it supports the rest of the capacities.

Endurance is the ability to perform an effort of greater or lesser intensity for as long as possible. It implies supporting an effort for a period of time and that the body is able to recover quickly.

The speed promptness or lightness in the movement, that is, to carry out one or several movements in the shortest possible time. Therefore, this basic physical quality means carrying out a movement with a high rhythm of execution and in a way that does not cause fatigue.

Flexibility is the range of oscillation of a joint within its natural limits. It is based on elasticity and joint mobility. Also, flexibility is necessary to prevent injury.

Coordinative physical capacities

Apart from the basic physical capacities, there are coordinative physical capacities. Coordination and balance are perceptual-motor skills. They are determined by the ability to capture and process information by the analyzers involved in the movement. Therefore, they depend fundamentally on the central nervous system.

Coordination can be defined as the ability to perform movements efficiently, accurately, quickly and in an orderly manner. That is, coordination is what allows us to move synchronously all the muscles involved in an action. This is one of the capacities that deteriorates the most with old age, making daily life activities difficult. But fortunately it can be trained through cognitive stimulation, so it does not belong to the basic physical abilities.

Equilibrium is a state in which balance has been achieved between two or more forces or situations. It is a circumstance of harmony in a certain physical space that does not belong to the basic physical capacities . There are different types of balance. The stable equilibrium, in which after a disturbance the body returns to its initial position. And, the unstable equilibrium, in which after a disturbance the body moves away from its initial position, losing balance.

Resulting physical capabilities

As seen above, there are basic physical capacities, coordinative physical capacities and the resulting physical capacities. For this reason, from the previous ones the resulting physical capacities arise, that is, skill and agility.

Skill is the quality that allows you to perform various movements with your body. That is to say, they are motor patterns that start from the natural motor skills itself to promote its use in qualitatively and quantitatively different conditions, and that allow the realization of new learning.

Agility gradually improves the speed of maneuvering and the speed of reaction of the athlete in a certain action. Agility exercises are based on coordination, which is nothing more than the immediate muscular response capacity of the central nervous system.

What is force?

Strength belongs to the basic physical capacities, it is the ability to exert muscle tension against a certain resistance . It is developed to improve muscle tone. In addition, it increases performance to perform the tasks of daily life more easily. And, you can prevent some diseases by being in proper physical shape.

The evolution of strength appears at the age of 11 or 12 years. This is because during puberty there is a greater release of testosterone, which is responsible for muscle hypertrophy. Likewise, the size of the motor levers is increased, which makes possible a better application thereof.

Types of strength in basic physical capacities

Depending on the resistance you are trying to overcome and the number of repetitions, the types of strength are:

  • Maximum force: It is the supreme force that a muscle or muscle group can develop. It is developed when the resistance you put up is maximum. Some sports where these types of strength are used are weightlifting, powerlifting or bodybuilding, which seek the development of repetitions with maximum loads.
  • Strength resistance: It is the ability to overcome or withstand a force for a long period of time. The muscle or muscle group resists a force that generates repetitive contractions. Examples of sports where this type of strength is worked on can be highlighted those of a cyclical nature, such as swimming, medium-long distance rowing, canoeing or cycling.
  • Strength-speed: It is the ability to overcome light or moderate resistance at the maximum possible speed of muscle contraction. For example, explosive modalities in athletics such as sprint races, throws or jumps. Or, in soccer, how to hit the ball at maximum power with maximum force .

What is resistance?

Resistance belongs to the basic physical capacities, it is the ability to withstand the state of progressive fatigue that occurs in long-term work. The body must be able to recover quickly. This physical capacity improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system. It allows the reduction of fatty tissue. Promotes the functioning of the digestive system. Improves muscle metabolism. And, it produces changes in the central nervous system. It influences the development of other capacities.

You develop resistance naturally, although when you are little the movements are not coordinated very well for this reason, this capacity is insufficiently developed. It is at the age of 11 to 13 in girls when it begins to develop and from 12 to 14 in boys.

Types of resistance in basic physical capacities

Resistance is divided into two types:

  • Aerobic resistance : It is the ability of the human being to maintain a low intensity effort for as long as possible. That is, when the O2 contribution and the O2 debt are balanced. For example, the race continues. When you run for a while, more than 3 minutes, at a light or moderate intensity where you can breathe more or less comfortably, you would be doing an aerobic endurance activity.
  • Anaerobic resistance : It is the capacity of the body to support a high intensity effort. It is done with a high O2 debt. For example, a race of 300 or 400 meters at high speed , your body is not able to capture O2 sufficiently, so it is called O2 debt. It is a strong effort that you make and when you are doing it or when you finish your breathing it is very fast and you feel short of breath.

What is speed?

The speed belongs to the basic physical capacities,  it allows you to make one or several movements in the shortest possible time. That is, you perform a movement with a high rate of execution and in a way that does not cause you fatigue. The benefits of this basic physical capacity is the increase in attention and concentration. It allows you to carry out faster and more efficient movements by stimulating the functioning of the nervous system.

You begin to develop speed at the age of 10. This is because by this age most of the nerve ramifications have already been myelinated. Between the ages of 17 and 23 it reaches its peak. From this moment it begins to gradually decrease. This decline accelerates after age 30 if you don't keep training it.

Types of speed in basic physical capacities

Speed ​​has different types according to certain authors. On the one hand, it is divided into:

  • Cyclic speed : They are movements of a cyclical nature, in which a pattern of movement is constantly repeated. For example, run.
  • Acyclic speed : They are those in which a pattern is not repeated continuously. For example, the lunge in fencing.

But there is another division in the types of speed :

  • Contractile speed : It is the ability of the muscle to contract effectively.
  • Reaction speed : Allows you to respond in the shortest possible time to a stimulus. For example, dodge the ball in the kill game.
  • Maximum speed : It implies executing a movement as fast as possible. In turn, it can be classified into:
  • Global: when it involves the whole body.
  • Segmental: involves a specific body segment.
  • Resistance speed : It is one that allows you to maintain speed for as long as possible.

What is flexibility?

Flexibility belongs to the basic physical capacities, they are based on joint mobility and muscle elasticity that allows the maximum range of joints in various positions, allowing the subject to perform actions that require great agility and dexterity. The benefits of this basic physical capacity is that it will help you improve coordination, prevent different injuries to the locomotor system, it helps you take care of postural hygiene and increases the performance of other physical capacities.

Flexibility you have to work throughout the age of 6 to 12 years . Although this decreases over the years, especially after puberty.

Types of flexibility in basic physical abilities

Flexibility is divided into 4 types :

  • Static Flexibility : It is the muscular elongation that is maintained for a certain time.
  • Dynamic Flexibility : Stretching and shortening of the muscle alternates, maintaining muscle elongation for a short period of time. For example, joint mobility.
  • Passive flexibility : It is the ability to stretch a muscle or move a joint due to the action of external forces.
  • Active flexibility : It is the ability to stretch a muscle or move a joint by contraction of the antagonist muscle that is intended to be stretched. For example, contracting the quadriceps to stretch the hamstrings.

Games and strength exercises

There are two ways of working on strength that can be done in physical education:

Self-load: These are exercises performed without additional weight, using only the weight of our body. For example, push-ups, sit-ups, squats, or deep steps.

Overload: These are all those exercises that are carried out with an additional load to our own weight, be it the help of a partner, weights or apparatus. This method is often used with a circuit. For example, first push-ups on the bench, second, abdominals, third squats, fourth lower back, fifth deep steps, sixth dips on the bench and seventh pull-ups.

Games and resistance exercises

Resistance can be worked in different ways. These exercises are ideal for developing them in physical education:

  • Continuous methods: They are those in which you work without interruptions for a while, being able to vary the rhythm. For example, the continuous race, duration of 20 minutes at a slow pace of 140 p/m). The time fartlek with a duration of 2 minutes of strong pace, 5 minutes of medium pace and to finish 3 minutes of jogging. The distance fartlek, a distance of 200 meters and later another stronger distance with a distance of 300 meters. And, a musical fartlek following the rhythm of the song.
  • Fractional methods. The distance is divided into parts interspersing a greater and lesser intensity. For example, interval training, 4 laps with a distance of 300 meters at a strong intensity with 30-second breaks.

Games and speed exercises

Speed ​​is exercised in many ways, but a dynamic and productive one can be the reaction games that are carried out in physical education:

  • Crabs and kangaroos. They are organized into 2 groups. On the right are the crabs and on the left are the kangaroos. The goal is for all the children on the other team to be eliminated. The person in charge of the game will say out loud or crabs or kangaroos and they must bend down. So if it says crabs, they will have to duck at high speed . If they do not do it or do it, but too late, they are disqualified. In the same way, if you say kangaroo and a crab crouches, those that have done so are eliminated. When there are no more members of one of the two teams, the game ends.
  • The stone: It is organized in groups of many people. These are placed in a row, one of them in front. The goal is to reach a tree or wall with the highest speed possible without being caught by the rest of the teammates. The development of the game consists of the members of the groups positioning themselves so that they stand next to each other, placing their hands in the shape of a bowl. The person in front of them will deposit a stone in someone's hands. He will be able to pretend he hasn't put the stone down yet by pacing in front of the row. The student who has it will decide when to start running. You will have to get to a point without being touched. If he succeeds, he will be the next to leave her. In the case of being caught, it will be the one who has been caught in charge of putting it on top of the hands of a partner.

Games and flexibility exercises

For flexibility , more than exercises, more dynamic games are often used to develop this basic physical quality in physical education:

  • The crab: Groups of 2 or 3 people are organized by placing themselves in a circle. The goal is to touch another person from your site. The rules consist in that a person is placed inside the circle, formed by the rest of his companions, squatting. He will have to try to touch one of his teammates with flexibility . The latter will be able to move without letting go of hands. When he succeeds, he will change roles with the child he has touched.
  • Limbo: It is organized in groups of several people. The objective is to go under the stick without touching it with any part of the body. This flexibility game consists of two people holding a stick horizontally. The rest have to go under leaning the trunk backwards. When someone touches the limbo, they are disqualified or a penalty is applied. Once all the participants have passed, it goes down a little more. The last player remaining will be the winner.