Field hockey rules, Basic rules, History of field hockey - teenflixsports

Basic rules of field hockey Origin and history of field hockey

According to the basic rules of field hockey , it is a sport in which two teams of eleven players each compete to put a bocce (ball) into the other team's goal. Field hockey is played with a stick or stick, which allows you to control the ball and do all kinds of actions to score a goal. As the rules of field hockey indicate , the objective is to score more goals than the opposing team at the end of the match, which lasts for four quarters of fifteen minutes.

The history of field hockey indicates that it is a sport that was born many years ago. Some documents and engravings were found showing people playing ball with a wooden cue. However, it was not until recently that the basic rules of field hockey were collected within the International Hockey Federation (FIH). This organization is in charge of regulating the basic rules of field hockey and indoor hockey at the international level, as well as organizing international competitions.

In this article, in addition to reviewing the history of field hockey and its basic rules , we will delve into how this sport is played, how long the games last, what are the roles and positions of the players, what types of hockey exist and what sanctions may be in a match.


  • Origin and history of field hockey
  • Types of hockey: field, ice, roller
  • Field Hockey Basic Rules – 9 Summary Rules
  • How is field hockey played?
  • How long does the field hockey game last?
  • field hockey rules
  • Hockey players riding
  • Roles and positions of hockey players
  • Fouls and penalties according to the rules of field hockey
  • Origin and history of field hockey
Origin and history of field hockey

Although the earliest  field hockey rules we have date back to the 19th century, there are records that the sport originated in ancient Egypt in 2000 BC So the history of field hockey began many years ago. Obviously, the game that was played at that time has nothing to do with the sport that it is now, since it does not coincide with the basic rules of field hockey. Thus, the history of this sport as we practice it now began in England in the mid-19th century.

The  rules of field hockey , as the game itself has done, have evolved since ancient Egypt and in various regions of Asia. In addition, there are records of the practice of a sport with rules similar to the rules of field hockey in Europe during the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, the first field hockey association was formed, when India and Pakistan were the great dominators of this sport. According to the history of field hockey , the International Federation of Hockey (FIH) was created in 1924 , in which the basic rules of field hockey were written  in an official manner.

Types of hockey: field, ice, roller

Hockey is a family of sports in which we can see sports that share similarities, but are also very different from each other. On the one hand, apart from sharing some basic hockey rules , they also share a good part of their history . On the other hand, the rules of ice hockey are far from the rules of field hockey. In addition, the equipment of the players is very different in some cases.

History of field hockey or field hockey

The  history  of field hockey  practically begins with human history. Records have been found that a sport very similar to hockey was played in Egypt, dating back to 2000 BC. Here the players do not skate, but run after the ball to score a goal. In addition, the goals are larger and squarer than those of other variants.

ice hockey history

Ice hockey was invented in Canada in 1877. It receives this name because the players try to score a goal, that is, introduce the puck (puck) into the opposing goal while skating on ice.

History of roller hockey

According to its history , roller hockey was born in England at the end of the 19th century. However, in reality its history is related to that of ice hockey, since it is a variant of it. This sport can be practiced in warmer or more tropical places than ice hockey, since it does not need a weather condition to be practiced.

Field Hockey Basic Rules – 9 Summary Rules

Field hockey has many rules to create a fair and fun game. Next, we will explain nine basic rules of field hockey:

  • To score a goal, the attacking player must throw the ball from inside the area.
  • According to the rules of field hockey , the penalty-corner is a foul in which the ball must be placed on the end line, about 10 meters from the goal.
  • The player who takes the penalty-corner must have at least one foot outside the court. His teammates must stay out of the area.
  • When a penalty is scored, a maximum of five defenders, including the goalkeeper, may stand behind the end line with their sticks.
  • Under field hockey rules , the penalty-stroke is a more serious penalty, in which an attacker kicks the ball from a spot inside the penalty area. Meanwhile, the goalkeeper stands on the goal line.
  • With the exception of the goalkeeper, none of the players may touch the ball with any part of the body.
  • When the ball leaves the side, a shot is made from the ground, right in the area where the ball left.
  • Unlike the vast majority of sports, in a throw you can go out and play with the ball.
  • As dictated by the rules of field hockey , the player cannot obstruct the opponent or cover the ball with his body. He can only do it if he is on the move.

How is field hockey played?

The history of field hockey tells that it is a sport in which two rival teams of eleven players compete to put a ball in the opposite goal. This action is possible with the help of a stick or stick, which allows you to control the ball. The objective is to score more goals than the opponent at the end of the regulation playing time. This time can vary, as we have seen before. It can be played in two parts of 35 minutes or in 4 quarters of 15 minutes each.

In the  field hockey rules , it is very clear that it is totally forbidden to touch the ball with anything other than the stick, unless you are the goalie. In this case, these field hockey rules do not apply to you.

How long does the field hockey game last?

The field hockey rules explain that a game can be made up of two periods of 35 minutes, with a 5-minute break between them. However, the basic rules of field hockey also allow some international tournaments to use a 4-quarter format. These are 15 minutes each, with two-minute breaks in between. Between the second and third, there is a 15-minute intermission. In both cases, if at the end of the regulation time the referee signals a sanction, this can be executed equally.

Game time is stopped during penalty kicks, video reviews, and any other situation that significantly stops the game.

field hockey rules

In field hockey rules , the grass field measures 91.4 x 55 meters and is divided into two halves. As in most sports, the short lines that mark the field of play are called end lines. The longest lines, perpendicular to the previous ones, are the lateral ones or bands.

Apart from the boundary lines and the center line, there is one more line in each half of the field. In the rules of field hockey it is stipulated that these must be 22.9 meters from the bottom line. They are known as 23 meter lines. They limit different actions, such as how far the goalkeeper can advance. In addition, each goal has its areas in front. The smallest, 14.63 meters from the goal, has very important functions in the game. Define the area where the goalkeeper has specific rules for him:

  • Only the balls that have been hit inside it can be a goal.
  • The faults of the defenders that occur in it are sanctioned, depending on the case, with a penalty-corner or a penalty-stroke.
  • The larger area is drawn with a dashed line, 5 meters from the smaller one.

Finally, according to the rules of field hockey , the penalty spot is found at a distance of 6.4 meters from the goal.

Hockey players riding

Since the beginning of field hockey history , the field players and the goaltender have worn different kits. The basic rules of field hockey say that field players must not wear specific clothing beyond shin guards and mouth guards, unless they are defensemen. If they are defenders, during corner penalties they must put on a mask and gloves momentarily. The goalkeepers, on the other hand, are protected by a full-face helmet with a mesh for the face, elbow pads, gloves, leg protectors and a cup. Obviously, all of them must wear shoes suitable for artificial grass to avoid slipping and injury.

Field hockey rules for the field hockey stick

According to the rules of field hockey , the field hockey stick is the stick with which the ball must be controlled. This stick is made of wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber and various combinations of these last two materials. Depending on what they are made of, the prices will be higher or lower.

As stipulated by the rules of field hockey , the sticks must have a curved bottom, giving it a somewhat hooked appearance. It is the area called "Head". This one has a flat left face and a curved right. You can only control the ball with the first one, the flat one.

The length of the field hockey stick varies depending on the height of the player, but cannot exceed 105 centimeters. The weight limit is 737 grams and, at most, it can be 51 millimeters thick, including any protective or advertising tape that is added. It has a slight lateral curvature that provides greater ergonomics.

Field hockey shoes

Field hockey rules reflect that proper safety equipment is very important when playing the sport. Shoes are included in this kit. Choosing Field Hockey Shoes most appropriate for each player is a task in which it is convenient to invest time. It is a sport in which it is necessary to run most of the time and, therefore, it must be done with the best guarantees. One aspect that we must take into account when choosing hockey shoes is comfort. On the one hand, excessively hard shoes will make the foot very rigid. On the other hand, some that are too soft will cause the foot to move laterally when making different movements. Finally, if the shoe has a lot of grip on the ground, we will run the risk of spraining an ankle.

Another fundamental point that we have to take into account is the sole. Playing in field hockey shoes With a good grip on the surface of the field, it will make our movements safe. For this, the most appropriate thing is that the sole is multitaco. However, these cleats should not be like soccer cleats, since they could damage the surface of the field. Those of field hockey shoes usually have a length of approximately 0.5 centimeters, and the greater the number of studs on the sole, the greater the grip we will obtain.

Field hockey rules for field hockey ball

Back in the early days of field hockey history , balls were made of leather and cork. Currently, but, they are plastic and hollow inside. Field hockey rules mandate that the thickness of the material be 1 centimeter, and that they have a perimeter of between 224 and 235 millimeters. The weight should be between 156 and 163 grams. In addition, they should preferably be white or any color that contrasts with the track surface. Thus, yellow balls are very common because they facilitate the vision of the spectators.

Field hockey protections

According to the basic rules of grass hockey , this sport is very dynamic. The use of blunt tools such as the stick and the balls, which acquire considerable speed, can constitute risks if adequate protection is not used. Therefore, it is essential that all field hockey players are protected against any risk with the following materials:

  • Mouth guards: very useful to protect the teeth as much as possible from possible blows or injuries. They are recommended to any player and are required in many leagues.
  • Gloves: Field hockey rules do not require gloves to be worn. However, it is a supplement that helps to reduce the risk of broken fingers and to keep your hands warm when it is cold.
  • Shin guards: they are mandatory protections. As the ball is very hard and can rise up to knee height, if players do not wear additional protection in this area, the hits they can receive will be very painful.
  • Mask: it will be used at the time of the Penalty Corner for the players who are defending. This protection allows you to protect the face from possible blows that they may receive in this play, since they have a greater risk. Field hockey rules on wearing masks vary by league, but they must always fit snugly against the face.
  • Abdominal protection: it is a comfortable and effective system that guarantees protection in the crotch, mobility and agility of the hockey player in the Penalty Corner.
  • Goggles: Field hockey history notes that since 2011, American high school players have been required to wear protective eyewear. Most goggles have a metal frame that protects the eyes, but some players prefer plastic goggles, which interfere less with perimeter vision.

Roles and positions of hockey players

The positions of the field hockey players serve to distribute themselves effectively on the field. 11 people play, 10 on the field and a goalkeeper. The speed of a bocce (ball) is always greater than that of the fastest field hockey player , so passing transport is more efficient than personal transport. As in soccer, the first system used in the history of field hockey was the English system called "WM", where the field players (all except the goalie and insiders) are distributed on the vertices of those letters W and m.

Field hockey rules prohibit the goalie from playing beyond 23 meters. He only has the possibility to use his special privileges inside the area: push the ball or ball with his feet, and stop it with his arms. For that reason, and because of the weight of the protective equipment that limits his movement and speed, he usually plays close to the goal.

The defense positions are, depending on the game system, central defenses (full-backs), side defenses (half-backs or halfs), stopper (advanced central defense) or "libero" (last central defense). Midfield positions vary depending on the system of play. In the case of the old English system, the midfielders are called insides. In addition, as the basic rules of field hockey point out , the positions in the attack also depend on the game system. In the old English system, the attackers who used the wings were called wings, and the center attacker was called center forward.

Fouls and penalties according to the rules of field hockey

Most offenses during a field hockey game are minor and result in a loss of possession. However, there are situations where this is not enough. For this reason, the basic rules of field hockey punish inside the field, although they can also mean a sanction for the player himself. All sanctions mean that the team plays with one less member for a period of time, including expulsion for the rest of the game.

  • For minor offences, the player can be penalized by a green triangular card. This involves a two-minute suspension.
  • If there is reiteration or the offense that occurs is more severe, the penalty can go up to 10 minutes. It is marked with a yellow card. In both cases, the penalized player must remain in a designated area. The sanction time can be extended if, at the discretion of the referees, misconduct occurs during it.
  • In serious situations, the expulsion can be final, forcing the player to leave the field. This type of punishment is indicated by a round red card.